Preview

Russian Journal of Cardiology

Advanced search

2020 Clinical practice guidelines for Acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation

https://doi.org/10.15829/1560-4071-2021-4449

Full Text:

Abstract

Endorsed by: Research and Practical Council of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

About the Authors

O. L. Barbarash

Russian Federation

Competing Interests:

Отсутствие конфликта интересов.



D. V. Duplyakov

Russian Federation


D. A. Zateischikov

Russian Federation


E. P. Panchenko

Russian Federation


R. M. Shakhnovich

Russian Federation


I. S. Yavelov

Russian Federation


A. N. Yakovlev

Russian Federation


S. A. Abugov

Russian Federation


B. G. Alekyan

Russian Federation


M. V. Arkhipov

Russian Federation


E. Yu. Vasilieva

Russian Federation


A. S. Galyavich

Russian Federation


V. I. Ganyukov

Russian Federation


S. R. Gilyarevskyi

Russian Federation


E. P. Golubev

Russian Federation


E. Z. Golukhova

Russian Federation


N. A. Gratsiansky

Russian Federation


Yu. A. Karpov

Russian Federation


E. D. Kosmacheva

Russian Federation


Yu. M. Lopatin

Russian Federation


V. A. Markov

Russian Federation


N. N. Nikulina

Russian Federation


D. V. Pevzner

Russian Federation


N. V. Pogosova

Russian Federation


A. V. Protopopov

Russian Federation


D. V. Skrypnik

Russian Federation


S. N. Tereshchenko

Russian Federation


S. A. Ustyugov

Russian Federation


A. V. Khripun

Russian Federation


S. V. Shalaev

Russian Federation


V. A. Shpektor

Russian Federation


S. S. Yakushin

Russian Federation


References

1. Howick JH. The Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine. Wiley. p. 15. ISBN: 978-1-44434266-6.

2. Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, et al. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ. 1996;312:71-2.

3. Federal law No. 323-FZ of 21.11.2011 (as amended on 03.04.2017) “On the basics of public health protection in the Russian Federation”. (In Russ.) https://minzdrav.gov.ru/documents/7025.

4. Epidemiological dictionary. Ed. John M. Last for the International Epidemiological Association. 4th ed. Moscow, 2009. 316 p. (In Russ.)

5. Federal Agency for technical regulation and Metrology. National standard of the Russian Federation. GOST R 52379-2005. Good clinical practice. Moscow, 2005. (In Russ.) https://roszdravnadzor.gov.ru/i/upload/images/2014/10/20/1413792833.82951-1-20391.rtf.

6. Federal law No. 61-FZ of 12.04.2010 (as amended on 03.07.2016) “On circulation of medicinal products”. (In Russ.)

7. Malaya meditsinskaya enciklopediya. M.: Meditsinskaya enciklopediya. 1991-96. (In Russ.) http://www.rubricon.com/mme_1.asp.

8. Andreeva NS, Rebrova OYu, Zorin NA, et al. Systems for evaluating the reliability of scientific evidence and the credibility of recommendations: comparative characteristics and prospects for unification. Medical technology. Evaluation and selection. 2012;4:10-24. (In Russ.)

9. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018). Eur Heart J. 2019;40:237-69.

10. Rosstat (In Russ.) www.gsk.ru на 22.06.2019.

11. Regitz-Zagrosek V, Oertelt Prigione S, Prescott E, et al. EUGenMed Cardiovascular Clinical Study Group. Gender in cardiovascular diseases: impact on clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:24-34.

12. Kontsevaya AV, Kalinina AM, Koltunov IE, Oganov RG. Socio-economic damage by acute coronary syndrome in Russian Federation. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2011;7(2):158-66. (In Russ.) doi:10.20996/1819-6446-2011-7-2-158-166.

13. McManus DD, Gore J, Yarzebski J, et al. Recent trends in the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Am J Med. 2011;124:40-7.

14. Erlich AD, Matskeplishvili ST, Graziansky NA, et al. The First Moscow register of acute coronary syndrome: characteristics of patients, treatment and outcomes during hospital stay. Cardiology. 2013;12:4-14. (In Russ.)

15. Fox KA, Carruthers KF, Dunbar DR, et al. Underestimated and under-recognized: the late consequences of acute coronary syndrome (GRACE UK-Belgian Study). Eur Heart J. 2010;31:2755-64.

16. Pasupathy S, Air T, Dreyer RP, et al. Systematic review of patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction and nonobstructive coronary arteries. Circulation. 2015;131:861-70.

17. Niccoli G, Scalone G, Crea F. Acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis: mechanisms and management. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:475-81.

18. Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2016;37:267-315.

19. Amsterdam EA, Wenger N, Brindis RG, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC Guidelines for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2014;130:e344-e426.

20. Reichlin T, Twerenbold R, Reiter M, et al. Introduction of high-sensitivity troponin assays: impact on myocardial infarction incidence and prognosis. Am J Med. 2012;125:1205-13.

21. Chapman AR, Lee KK, McAllister DA, et al. Association of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Concentration With Cardiac Outcomes in Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome. JAMA. 2017;318:1913-24.

22. Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Mockel M, et al., Biomarker Study Group of the ESC ACCA. Rapid rule out of acute myocardial infarction: novel biomarker-based strategies. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2017;6:218-22.

23. Pickering JW, Than MP, Cullen L, et al. Rapid Rule-out of Acute Myocardial Infarction With a Single High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Measurement Below the Limit of Detection: A Collaborative Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166:715-24.

24. Miller-Hodges E, Anand A, Shah ASV, et al. High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin and the Risk Stratification of Patients With Renal Impairment Presenting With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome. Circulation. 2018;137:425-35.

25. Giannitsis E, Becker M, Kurz K, et al. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T for early prediction of evolving non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and negative troponin results on admission. Clinical chemistry. 2010;56:642-50.

26. Reichlin T, Irfan A, Twerenbold R, et al. Utility of absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2011;124:136-45.

27. Shah ASV, Anand A, Strachan FE, et al. High-sensitivity troponin in the evaluation of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018;392:919-28.

28. Reichlin T, Schindler C, Drexler B, et al. One-hour rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:1211-8.

29. Reichlin T, Twerenbold R, Maushart C, et al. Risk stratification in patients with unstable angina using absolute serial changes of 3 high-sensitive troponin assays. Am Heart J. 2013;165:371-8.

30. Shah AS, Anand A, Sandoval Y, et al. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I at presentation in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a cohort study. Lancet. 2015;386:2481-8.

31. Nestelberger T, Wildi K, Boeddinghaus J, et al. Characterization of the observe zone of the ESC 2015 high-sensitivity cardiac troponin 0h/1h-algorithm for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2016;207:238-45.

32. Neumann JT, Sorensen NA, Schwemer T, et al. Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction Using a High-Sensitivity Troponin I 1-Hour Algorithm. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1:397-404.

33. Boeddinghaus J, Reichlin T, Cullen L, et al. Two-Hour Algorithm for Triage toward Rule-Out and Rule-In of Acute Myocardial Infarction by Use of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I. Clin Chem. 2016;62:494-504.

34. Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Christ M, et al., Investigators T-A. Multicenter Evaluation of a 0-Hour/1-Hour Algorithm in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction With High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T. Ann Emerg Med. 2016;68:76-87.

35. Chapman AR, Anand A, Boeddinghaus J, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of early rule-out pathways for acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2017;135:1586-96.

36. Boeddinghaus J, Nestelberger T, Twerenbold R, et al. Direct comparison of 4 very early rule-out strategies for acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I. Circulation. 2017;135:1597-611.

37. Wildi K, Cullen L, Twerenbold R, et al. Direct Comparison of 2 Rule-Out Strategies for Acute Myocardial Infarction: 2-h Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol vs 2-h Algorithm. Clin Chem. 2017;63:1227-36.

38. Boeddinghaus J, Nestelberger T, Twerenbold R, et al., Investigators T-A. Impact of age on the performance of the ESC 0/1h-algorithms for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2018;39:3780-94.

39. Boeddinghaus J, Twerenbold R, Nestelberger T, et al., Investigators A. Clinical Validation of a Novel High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Assay for Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Clin Chem. 2018;64:1347-60.

40. Twerenbold R, Badertscher P, Boeddinghaus J, et al. 0/1-Hour Triage Algorithm for Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Renal Dysfunction. Circulation. 2018;137:436-51.

41. Twerenbold R, Neumann JT, Sorensen NA, et al. Prospective Validation of the 0/1-h Algorithm for Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72:620-32.

42. Greenslade J, Cho E, Van Hise C, et al. Evaluating Rapid Rule-out of Acute Myocardial Infarction Using a High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Assay at Presentation. Clin Chem. 2018;64:820-9.

43. Neumann JT, Twerenbold R, Ojeda F, et al. Application of High-Sensitivity Troponin in Suspected Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:2529-40.

44. Neumann JT, Sorensen NA, Rubsamen N, et al. Evaluation of a new ultra-sensitivity troponin I assay in patients with suspected myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2019;283:35-40.

45. Chapman AR, Fujisawa T, Lee KK, et al. Novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Heart. 2019;105:616-22.

46. Wildi K, Nelles B, Twerenbold R, et al. Safety and efficacy of the 0 h/3 h protocol for rapid rule out of myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2016;181:16-25.

47. Badertscher P, Boeddinghaus J, Twerenbold R, et al.; for the APACE Investigators. Direct Comparison of the 0/1h and 0/3h Algorithms for Early Rule-Out of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation. 2018;137:2536-8.

48. D'Ascenzo F, Biondi-Zoccai G, Moretti C, et al.: TIMI, GRACE and alternative risk scores in Acute Coronary Syndromes: a meta-analysis of 40 derivation studies on 216,552 patients and of 42 validation studies on 31,625 patients. Contemporary clinical trials. 2012;33:507-14.

49. Subherwal S, Bach RG, Chen AY, et al.: Baseline risk of major bleeding in non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: the CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines) Bleeding Score. Circulation. 2009;119:1873-82.

50. Brazhnik VA, Minushkina LO, Guliev RR, et al. Bleeding risk factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome: data from observational studies ORACUL II. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2019;(3):7-16. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2019-3-7-16.

51. Giraldez RR, Clare RM, Lopes RD, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes among patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Am Heart J. 2013;165:918-25.

52. Hao Y, Lu Q, Li T, et al. Admission hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2017;17:6.

53. Svensson AM, McGuire DK, Abrahamsson P, Dellborg M. Association between hyper- and hypoglycaemia and 2-year all-cause mortality risk in diabetic patients with acute coronary events. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:1255-61.

54. Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J. 2020;41:111-88.

55. Rouan GW, Lee TH, Cook EF, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcome of acute myocardial infarction in patients with initially normal or nonspecific electrocardiograms (a report from the Multicenter Chest Pain Study). The American journal of cardiology. 1989;64:1087-92.

56. McCarthy BD, Wong JB, Selker HP. Detecting acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a review of the literature. J Gen Intern Med. 1990;5:365-73.

57. Savonitto S, Ardissino D, Granger CB, et al. Prognostic value of the admission electrocardiogram in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 1999;281:707-13.

58. Diercks DB, Peacock WF, Hiestand BC, et al. Frequency and consequences of recording an electrocardiogram >10 minutes after arrival in an emergency room in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (from the CRUSADE initiative). Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:437-42.

59. Zalenski RJ, Rydman RJ, Sloan EP, et al. Value of posterior and right ventricular leads in comparison to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in evaluation of ST-segment elevation in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:1579-85.

60. Matetzky S, Freimark D, Feinberg MS, et al. Acute myocardial infarction with isolated ST-segment elevation in posterior chest leads V7-9: “hidden” ST-segment elevations revealing acute posterior infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:748-53.

61. Fesmire FM, Percy RF, Bardoner JB, et al. Usefulness of automated serial 12-lead ECG monitoring during the initial emergency department evaluation of patients with chest pain. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31:3-11.

62. Drew BJ, Califf RM, Funk M, et al. Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the councils on cardiovascular nursing, clinical cardiology, and cardiovascular disease in the young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Circulation. 2004;110:2721-46.

63. Brueckmann M, Collinson P, Comaniciu D, et al. Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:3049-55.

64. Lancellotti P, Price S, Edvardsen T, et al. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care: recommendations of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2015;4:3-5.

65. Flather MD, Yusuf S, Kober L, et al. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. ACE-Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Lancet. 2000;355:1575-81.

66. Dargie HJ. Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction: the CAPRICORN randomised trial. Lancet. 2001;357:1385-90.

67. Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F, et al. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1309-21.

68. Goldschlager R, Roth H, Solomon J, et al. Validation of a clinical decision rule: chest X-ray in patients with chest pain and possible acute coronary syndrome. Emerg Radiol. 2014;21:367-72.

69. Claeys MJ, Ahrens I, Sinnaeve P, et al. The organization of chest pain units: Position statement of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association. Eur Heart J: Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2017;6:203-11.

70. Katritsis DG, Siontis GC, Kastrati A, et al. Optimal timing of coronary angiography and potential intervention in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:32-40.

71. Elgendy IY, Mahmoud AN, Wen X, Bavry AA. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials of LongTerm All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Managed With Routine Invasive Versus Selective Invasive Strategies. Am J Cardiol. 2017;119:560-4.

72. Trippi JA, Lee KS. Dobutamine stress tele-echocardiography as a clinical service in the emergency department to evaluate patients with chest pain. Echocardiography. 1999;16:179-85.

73. Amsterdam EA, Kirk JD, Diercks DB, et al. Immediate exercise testing to evaluate low-risk patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:251-6.

74. Bholasingh R, Cornel JH, Kamp O, et al. Prognostic value of predischarge dobutamine stress echocardiography in chest pain patients with a negative cardiac troponin T. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:596-602.

75. Gaibazzi N, Reverberi C, Badano L. Usefulness of contrast stress-echocardiography or 3458 exercise-electrocardiography to predict long-term acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting with chest pain without electrocardiographic abnormalities or 12-hour troponin levation. Am J Cardiol. 2011;107:161-7.

76. Lim SH, Anantharaman V, Sundram F, et al. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging for the evaluation and triage of chest pain in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial. J Nucl Cardiol. 2013;20:1002-12.

77. Shah BN, Balaji G, Alhajiri A, et al. Incremental diagnostic and prognostic value of contemporary stress echocardiography in a chest pain unit: mortality and morbidity outcomes from a real-world setting. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013;6:202-9.

78. Nabi F, Kassi M, Muhyieddeen K, et al. Optimizing Evaluation of Patients with Low-to-Intermediate-Risk Acute Chest Pain: A Randomized Study Comparing Stress Myocardial Perfusion Tomography Incorporating Stress-Only Imaging Versus Cardiac CT. J Nucl Med. 2016;57:378-84.

79. Kim HW, Faraneh-Far A, Kim RJ. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;55:1-16.

80. Beek AM, van Rossum AC. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 2010;96:237-43.

81. Kontos MC, Jesse RL, Schmidt KL, et al. Value of acute rest sestamibi perfusion imaging for evaluation of patients admitted to the emergency department with chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:976-82.

82. Udelson JE, Beshansky JR, Ballin DS, et al. Myocardial perfusion imaging for evaluation and triage of patients with suspected acute cardiac ischemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:2693-700.

83. Goldstein JA, Gallagher MJ, O'Neill WW, et al. A randomized controlled trial of multi-slice coronary computed tomography for evaluation of acute chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:863-71.

84. Hoffmann U, Bamberg F, Chae CU, et al. Coronary computed tomography angiography for early triage of patients with acute chest pain: the ROMICAT (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computer Assisted Tomography) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:1642-50.

85. Goldstein JA, Chinnaiyan KM, Abidov A, et al., Investigators C-S. The CT-STAT (Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography for Systematic Triage of Acute Chest Pain Patients to Treatment) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:1414-22.

86. Samad Z, Hakeem A, Mahmood SS, et al. A meta-analysis and systematic review of computed tomography angiography as a diagnostic triage tool for patients with chest pain presenting to the emergency department. J Nucl Cardiol. 2012;19:364-76.

87. Hoffmann U, Truong QA, Schoenfeld DA, et al., Investigators R-I. Coronary CT angiography versus standard evaluation in acute chest pain. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:299-308.

88. Litt HI, Gatsonis C, Snyder B, et al. CT angiography for safe discharge of patients with possible acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1393-403.

89. Hulten E, Pickett C, Bittencourt MS, et al. Outcomes after coronary computed tomography angiography in the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:880-92.

90. Dedic A, Lubbers MM, Schaap J, et al. Coronary CT Angiography for Suspected ACS in the Era of High-Sensitivity Troponins: Randomized Multicenter Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:16-26.

91. Granger CB, Goldberg RJ, Dabbous O, et al. Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events I. Predictors of hospital mortality in the global registry of acute coronary events. Archives of internal medicine. 2003;163:2345-53.

92. Antman EM, Cohen M, Bernink PJ, et al. The TIMI risk score for unstable angina/non-ST elevation MI: A method for prognostication and therapeutic decision making. JAMA. 2000;284:835-42.

93. Haaf P, Reichlin T, Twerenbold R, et al. Risk stratification in patients with acute chest pain using three high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:365-75.

94. Eagle KA, Lim MJ, Dabbous OH, et al., Investigators G. A validated prediction model for all forms of acute coronary syndrome: estimating the risk of 6-month postdischarge death in an international registry. JAMA. 2004;291:2727-33.

95. Meune C, Drexler B, Haaf P, et al. The GRACE score's performance in predicting in-hospital and 1-year outcome in the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and B-type natriuretic peptide. Heart. 2011;97:1479-83.

96. Fox KA, Dabbous OH, Goldberg RJ, et al. Prediction of risk of death and myocardial infarction in the six months after presentation with acute coronary syndrome: prospective multinational observational study (GRACE). BMJ. 2006;333:1091.

97. Fox KA, Fitzgerald G, Puymirat E, et al. Should patients with acute coronary disease be stratified for management according to their risk? Derivation, external validation and outcomes using the updated GRACE risk score. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004425.

98. Abu-Assi E, Raposeiras-Roubin S, Lear P, et al. Comparing the predictive validity of three contemporary bleeding risk scores in acute coronary syndrome. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2012;1:222-31.

99. Costa F, van Klaveren D, James S, et al.; PRECISE-DAPT Study Investigators. Derivation and validation of the predicting bleeding complications in patients undergoing stent implantation and subsequent dual antiplatelet therapy (PRECISE-DAPT) score: A pooled analysis of individual-patient datasets from clinical trials. Lancet. 2017;389:1025-34.

100. Meine TJ, Roe MT, Chen AY, et al. Association of intravenous morphine use and outcomes in acute coronary syndromes: results from the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative. Am Heart J. 2005;149:1043-9.

101. Iakobishvili Z, Cohen E, Garty M, et al. Use of intravenous morphine for acute decompensated heart failure in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes. Acute Card Care. 2011;13:76-80.

102. Duarte GS, Nunes-Ferreira A, Rodrigues FB, et al. Morphine in acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2019;9:e025232.

103. Ghadban R, Enezate T, Payne J, et al. The safety of morphine use in acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis. Heart Asia. 2019;11:e011142.

104. Farquhar H, Weatherall M, Wijesinghe M, et al. Systematic review of studies of the effect of hyperoxia on coronary blood flow. Am Heart J. 2009;158:371-7.

105. Moradkhan R, Sinoway LI. Revisiting the role of oxygen therapy in cardiac patients. JACC. 2010;56:1013-6.

106. Stub D, Smith K, Bernard S, et al. Air versus oxygen in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2015;131:2143-50.

107. Cabello JB, Burls A, Emparanza JI, et al. Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;12:CD007160.

108. Hofmann R, James SK, Jernberg T, et al., for the DETO2X-SWEDEHEART Investigators Oxygen Therapy in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction. E Engl J Med. 2017;377:1240-9.

109. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. ISIS-4: A randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1995;345:669-85.

110. Borzak S, Cannon CP, Kraft PL, et al. Effects of prior aspirin and anti-ischemic therapy on outcome of patients with unstable angina. TIMI 7 Investigators. Thrombin inhibition in myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81:678-81.

111. Shry EA, Dacus J, Van De Graaff E, et al. Usefulness of the Response to Sublingual Nitroglycerin as a Predictor of Ischemic Chest Pain in the Emergency Department. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:1264-6.

112. Kaplan K, Davison R, Parker M, et al. Intravenous nitroglycerin for the treatment of angina at rest unresponsive to standard nitrate therapy. Am J Cardiol. 1983;51:694-8.

113. Melandri G, Branzi A, Tartagni F, et al. Haemodynamic effects of metoprolol and intravenous nitroglycerin versus metoprolol alone in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 1987;8:592-6.

114. Karlberg KE, Saldeen T, Wallin R, et al. Intravenous nitroglycerin reduces ischaemia in unstable angina pectoris: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Intern Med. 1998;243:25-31.

115. Kojima S, Matsui K, Sakamoto T, et al.; on behalf of the Japanese Acute Coronary Syndrome Study (JACSS) Investigators. Long-term nitrate therapy after acute myocardial infarction does not improve or aggravate prognosis. Circ J. 2007;71:301-7.

116. Freemantle N, Cleland J, Young P, et al. Beta blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. BMJ. 1999;318:1730-7.

117. Ellis K, Tcheng JE, Sapp S, et al. Mortality benefit of beta-blockade in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary intervention: pooled results from Epic, Epilog, Capture and Rapport trials. J Interven Cardiol. 2003;16:299-305.

118. Miller CD, Roe MT, Mulgund J, et al. Impact of acute beta-blocker therapy for patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Am J Med. 2007;120:685-92.

119. Chatterjee S, Chaudhuri D, Vedanthan R, et al. Early intravenous beta-blockers in patients with acute coronary syndrome — a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:915-21.

120. Andersson C, Shilane D, Go AS, et al. Beta-blocker therapy and cardiac events among patients with newly diagnosed coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:247-52.

121. Bangalore S, Makani H, Radford M, et al. Clinical Outcomes with в-Blockers for Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials. Am J Med. 2014;127:939-53.

122. Puymirat E, Riant E, Aissoui Na, et al. в blockers and mortality after myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure: multicentre prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2016;354:i4801.

123. CIBIS-II Investigators. The cardiac insufficiency bisoprolol study II (CIBIS-II): a randomized trial. Lancet. 1999;353:9-13.

124. MERIT-HF Investigators. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: metoprolol CR/XL randomised intervention trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet. 1999;353:2001-7.

125. Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1651-8.

126. de Peuter OR, Lussana F, Peters RJ, et al. A systematic review of selective and non-selective beta blockers for prevention of vascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure. Neth J Med. 2009;67:284-94.

127. Gibson RS, Boden WE, Theroux P, et al. Diltiazem and reinfarction in patients with non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Results of a double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial. N Engl J Med. 1986;315:423-9.

128. Early treatment of unstable angina in the coronary care unit: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of recurrent ischaemia in patients treated with nifedipine or metoprolol or both. Report of the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/Metoprolol Trial (HINT) Research Group. Br Heart J. 1986;56:400-13.

129. Lubsen J, Tijssen JG. Efficacy of nifedipine and metoprolol in the early treatment of unstable angina in the coronary care unit: findings from the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/metoprolol Trial (HINT). Am J Cardiol. 1987;60:18A-25A.

130. Held PH, Yusuf S, Furberg CD. Calcium channel blockers in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina: an overview. BMJ. 1989;299:1187-92.

131. Effect of verapamil on mortality and major events after acute myocardial infarction (the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II-DAVIT II). Am J Cardiol. 1990;66:779-85.

132. Yusuf S, Held P, Furberg C. Update of effects of calcium antagonists in myocardial infarction or angina in light of the second Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial (DAVIT-II) and other recent studies. Am J Cardiol. 1991;67:1295-7.

133. Moss AJ, Oakes D, Rubison M, et al. Effects of diltiazem on long-term outcome after acute myocardial infarction in patients with and without a history of systemic hypertension. The Multicenter Diltiazem Postinfarction Trial Research Group. Am J Cardiol. 1991;68:429-33.

134. Goldbourt U, Behar S, Reicher-Reiss H, et al. Early administration of nifedipine in suspected acute myocardial infarction. The Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israel Nifedipine Trial 2 Study. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:345-53.

135. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV. Nifedipine. Dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation. 1995;92:1326-31.

136. Rengo F, Carbonin P, Pahor M, et al. A controlled trial of verapamil in patients after acute myocardial infarction: results of the calcium antagonist reinfarction Italian study (CRIS). Am J Cardiol. 1996;77:365-9.

137. Hansen JF, Hagerup L, Sigurd B, et al. Cardiac event rates after acute myocardial infarction in patients treated with verapamil and trandolapril versus trandolapril alone. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial (DAVIT) Study Group. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:738-41.

138. Pepine CJ, Faich G, Makuch R. Verapamil use in patients with cardiovascular disease: an overview of randomized trials. Clin Cardiol. 1998;21:633-41.

139. Smith NL, Reiber GE, Psaty BM, et al. Health outcomes associated with beta-blocker and diltiazem treatment of unstable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;32:1305-11.

140. Beltrame JF, Crea F, Kaski JC, et al.; Coronary Vasomotion Disorders International Study Group (COVADIS). The Who, What, Why, When, How and Where of Vasospastic Angina. Circ J. 2016;80:289-98.

141. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:145-53.

142. Fox KM; European trial On reduction of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease Investigators. Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet. 2003;362:782-8.

143. Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, et al. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1547-59.

144. Bangalore S, Fakheri R, Wandel S, et al. Renin angiotensin system inhibitors for patients with stable coronary artery disease without heart failure: systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized trials. BMJ. 2017;356:j4.

145. Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA, et al., SAVE Investigators. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:669-77.

146. Ball SG, Hall AS, Murray GD. ACE inhibition, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction — the AIRE Study in practice. Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy Study. Eur Heart J. 1994;15(Suppl B):20-5.

147. Pfeffer MA, Greaves SC, Arnold JM, et al. Early versus delayed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition therapy in acute myocardial infarction. The healing and early afterload reducing therapy trial. Circulation 1997;95:2643-51.

148. ACE Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Indications for ACE inhibitors in the early treatment of acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of individual data from 100,000 patients in randomized trials. Circulation 1998;97:2202-12.

149. Borghi C, Omboni S, Reggiardo G, et al., on behalf of the SMILE Working Project. Efficacy of Zofenopril Compared With Placebo and Other Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Previous Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Pooled Individual Data Analysis of 4 Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled, Prospective Studies. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2017;69:48-54.

150. Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, et al., Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial Investigators. Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1893-906.

151. Granger CB, McMurray JJ, Yusuf S, et al. Effects of candesartan 5688 in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to 5689 angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Alternative trial. Lancet. 2003;362:772-6.

152. Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, et al. Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:11-21.

153. Bossard M, Binbraik Y, Beygui F, et al. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction — A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials. Am Heart J. 2018;195:60-9.

154. Schwartz GG, Olsson AG, Ezekowitz MD, et al., for the Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) Study Investigators. Effects of Atorvastatin on Early Recurrent Ischemic Events in Acute Coronary Syndromes. The MIRACL Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2001;285:1711-8.

155. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1495-504.

156. Hulten E, Jackson JL, Douglas K, et al. The Effect of Early, Intensive Statin Therapy on Acute Coronary Syndrome. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1814-21.

157. Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010;376:1670-81.

158. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists Collaboration, Fulcher J, O'Connell R, Voysey M, et al. Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: metaanalysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015;385:1397-405.

159. Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, et al.; IMPROVE-IT Investigators. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:2387-97.

160. Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al., for the FOURIER Steering Committee and Investigators. Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomesin Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1713-22.

161. Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, et al., for the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Committees and Investigators. Alirocumab and Cardiovascular Outcomes after Acute Coronary Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:2097-107.

162. Sabatine MS, De Ferrari GM, Giugliano RP, et al. Clinical Benefit of Evolocumab by Severity and Extent of Coronary Artery Disease: An Analysis from FOURIER. Circulation. 2018;138:756-66.

163. Turgeon RiD, Tsuyuki RT, Gyenes GT, Pearson GJ. Cardiovascular Efficacy and Safety of PCSK9 Inhibitors: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Including the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial. CJC. 2018;34:1600-5.

164. Lewis HD Jr, Davis JW, Archibald DG, et al. Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina. Results of a Veterans Administration cooperative study. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:396-403.

165. Cairns JA, Gent M, Singer J, et al. Aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, or both in unstable angina. Results of a Canadian multicenter trial. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:1369-75.

166. Theroux P, Ouimet H, McCans J, et al. Aspirin, heparin, or both to treat acute unstable angina. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:1105-11.

167. The RISC group. Risk of myocardial infarction and death during treatment with low dose aspirin and intravenous heparin in men with unstable coronary artery disease. Lancet. 1990;336:827-30.

168. Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ. 2002;324:71-86.

169. Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2009;373:1849-60.

170. CAPRIE Steering Committee. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet. 1996;348:1329-39.

171. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:494-502.

172. Wiviott SD, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2001-15.

173. Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1045-57.

174. Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet. 2001;358:527-33.

175. Mehta SR, Tanguay JF, Eikelboom JW, et al., for CURRENT-OASIS Trial Investigators. Double-dose versus standard-dose clopidogrel and high-dose versus low-dose aspirin in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes (CURRENT-OASIS 7): a randomised factorial trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1233-43.

176. Mega JL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD, et al., ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 Investigators. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:9-19.

177. Eikelboom JW, Anand SS, Malmberg K, et al. Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin in acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation: A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2000;355:1936-42.

178. Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1464-76.

179. Steg PG, Jolly SS, Mehta SR, et al. Low-dose vs standard-dose unfractionated heparin for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes treated with fondaparinux: the FUTURA/OASIS-8 randomized trial. JAMA. 2010;304:1339-49.

180. Silvain J, Beygui F, Barthelemy O, et al. Efficacy and safety of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;344:e553.

181. Cohen M, Mahaffey KW, Pieper K, et al., on behalf of the SYNERGY Trial Investigators. A Subgroup Analysis of the Impact of Prerandomization Antithrombin Therapy on Outcomes in the SYNERGY Trial Enoxaparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes. JACC. 2006;48:1346-54.

182. Mehta SR, Steg PG, Granger CB, et al. Randomized, blinded trial comparing fondaparinux with unfractionated heparin in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention: Arixtra Study in Percutaneous coronary Intervention: a Randomized Evaluation (ASPIRE) pilot trial. Circulation. 2005;111:1390-7.

183. Cassese S, Byrne RA, Laugwitz KL, et al. Bivalirudin versus heparin in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. EuroIntervention. 2015;11:196-203.

184. Zhang S, Gao W, Li H, et al. Efficacy and safety of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Cardiol. 2016;209:87-95.

185. Erlinge D, Omerovic E, Frobert O, et al. Bivalirudin versus Heparin Monotherapy in Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1132-42.

186. Nuhrenberg TG, Hochholzer W, Mashayekhi K, et al. Efficacy and safety of bivalirudin for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Clin Res Cardiol. 2018;107:807-15.

187. Lamberts M, Gislason GH, Olesen JB, et al. Oral anticoagulation and antiplatelets in atrial fibrillation patients after myocardial infarction and coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:981-9.

188. Fiedler KA, Maeng M, Mehilli J, et al. Duration of triple therapy in patients requiring oral anticoagulation after drug-eluting stent implantation: The ISAR-TRIPLE trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:1619-29.

189. Dewilde WJ, Janssen PW, Kelder JC, et al. Uninterrupted oral anticoagulation versus bridging in patients with long-term oral anticoagulation during percutaneous coronary intervention: subgroup analysis from the WOEST trial. EuroIntervention. 2015;11:381-90.

190. Dewilde WJ, Oirbans T, Verheugt FW, et al.: WOEST Study Investigators. Use of clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: An open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1107-15.

191. Gibson CM, Mehran R, Bode C, et al. Prevention of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2423-34.

192. Cannon CP, Bhatt DL, Oldgren J, et al. RE-DUAL Steering Committee PCI and Investigators. Dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran after PCI in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1513-24.

193. Lopes RD, Heizer G, Aronson R, et al., for the AUGUSTUS Investigators. Antithrombotic Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndrome or PCI in Atrial Fibrillation. NEJM. 2019;380:1509-24.

194. Gargiulo G, Goette A, Tijssen J, et al. Safety and efficacy outcomes of double vs. triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant-based randomized clinical trials. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:3757-67.

195. Lopes RD, Hong H, Harskamp RE, et al. Optimal Antithrombotic Regimes for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. An Updated Network Meta-analysis. JAMA. Cardiol. 2020;5(5):582-9. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2019.6175.

196. Lamberts M, Olesen JB, Ruwald MH, et al. Bleeding after initiation of multiple antithrombotic drugs, including triple therapy, in atrial fibrillation patients following myocardial infarction and coronary intervention: a nationwide cohort study. Circulation. 2012;126:1185-93.

197. Dans AL, Connolly SJ, Wallentin L, et al. Concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy with dabigatran or warfarin in the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Circulation. 2013;127:634-40.

198. Kopin D, Jones WS, Sherwood MW, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention and antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving apixaban or warfarin: Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial. Am Heart J. 2018;197:133-41.

199. Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2014;383:955-62.

200. Montalescot G, Bolognese L, Dudek D, et al. Pretreatment with prasugrel in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:999-1010.

201. Palmerini T, Della Riva D, Benedetto U, et al. Three, six or twelve months of dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation in patients with or without acute coronary syndromes: An individual patient data pairwise and network meta-analysis of six randomized trials and 11,473 patients. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:1034-43.

202. Hahn J-Y, Song YBin, Oh J-H, et al., for the SMART-DATE investigators. 6-month versus 12-month or longer dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome (SMART-DATE): a randomised, open-label, noninferiority trial. Lancet. 2018;391:1274-84.

203. Hansson EC, Jideus L, Aberg B, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting-related bleeding complications in patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel: A nationwide study. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:189-97.

204. Tomsic A, Schotborgh MA, Manshanden JS, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting-related bleeding complications in patients treated with dual antiplatelet treatment. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;50:849-56.

205. Gherli R, Mariscalco G, Dalen M, et al. Safety of preoperative use of ticagrelor with or without aspirin compared with aspirin alone in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1:921-8.

206. Nijjer SS, Watson G, Athanasiou T, Malik IS. Safety of clopidogrel being continued until the time of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a metaanalysis of 34 studies. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:2970-88. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr151.

207. Held C, Asenblad N, Bassand J-P, et al. Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. Results From the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:672-84.

208. Smith PK, Goodnough LT, Levy JH, et al. Mortality Benefit With Prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Cohort. Risk-Adjusted Retrospective Data Analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:388-9.

209. Hansson C, Rexius H, Dellborg M, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting-related bleeding complications in real-life acute coronary syndrome patients treated with clopidogrel or ticagrelor. Eur J Cardio-Thoracic Surg. 2014;46:699-705.

210. Mohammad WA, Ashraf Z, Sayed HF. Urgent versus elective coronary artery bypass grafting in acute coronary artery syndrome. J Egypt Soc Cardio-Thoracic Surg. 2018;26:17-23.

211. Valgimigli M, Bueno H, Byrne RA, et al. ESC Scientific Document Group; ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG); ESC National Cardiac Societies. 2017 ESC focused update on dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease developed in collaboration with EACTS: The Task Force for dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J. 2018;39:213-60.

212. Neumann FJ, Sousa-Uva M, Ahlsson A, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2018 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:87-165.

213. Mauri L, Kereiakes DJ, Yeh RW, et al.; DAPT Study Investigators. Twelve or 30 months of dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stents. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2155-266.

214. Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al., PEGASUS-TIMI 54 Steering Committee and Investigators. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-800.

215. Costa F, Adamo M, Ariotti S, et al. Impact of greater than 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy duration on mortality: Drug-specific or a class-effect? A meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2015;201:179-81.

216. Hermiller JB, Krucoff MW, Kereiakes DJ, et al.; DAPT Study Investigators. Benefits and risks of extended dual antiplatelet therapy after everolimus-eluting stents. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:138-47.

217. Udell JA, Bonaca MP, Collet JP, et al. Long-term dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in the subgroup of patients with previous myocardial infarction: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:390-9.

218. Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Steg PG, et al. Ischaemic risk and efficacy of ticagrelor in relation to time from P2Y12 inhibitor withdrawal in patients with prior myocardial infarction: Insights from PEGASUS-TIMI 54. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:1133-42.

219. Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, et al., Investigators C. Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1319-30.

220. Bhatt DL, Cryer BL, Contant CF, et al., for the COGENT Investigators. Clopidogrel with or without Omeprazole in Coronary Artery Disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1909-17.

221. Kwok CS, Jeevanantham V, Dawn B, Loke YK. No consistent evidence of differential cardiovascular risk amongst proton-pump inhibitors when used with clopidogrel: metaanalysis. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167(3):965-74. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.03.085.

222. Huang B, Huang Y, Li Y, et al. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Concomitant Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Clopidogrel in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Archives of Medical Research. 2012;43:212-24.

223. Melloni C, Washam JB, Jones WS, et al. Conflicting Results Between Randomized Trials and Observational Studies on the Impact of Proton Pump Inhibitors on Cardiovascular Events When Coadministered With Dual Antiplatelet Therapy. Systematic Review. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8:47-55.

224. Sehested TSG, Carlson N, Hansen PW, et al. Reduced risk of gastrointestinal bleeding associated with proton pump inhibitor therapy in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy after myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:1963-70.

225. Gurbel PA, Bliden KP, Butler K, et al. Response to ticagrelor in clopidogrel nonresponders and responders and effect of switching therapies: the RESPOND study. Circulation. 2010;121:1188-99.

226. Cuisset T, Deharo P, Quilici J, et al. Benefit of switching dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: the TOPIC (timing of platelet inhibition after acute coronary syndrome) randomized study. European Heart Journal. 2017;38:3070-8.

227. Sibbing D, Aradi D, Jacobshagen C, et al., on behalf of the TROPICAL-ACS Investigators. Guided de-escalation of antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (TROPICAL-ACS): a randomised, openlabel, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2017;390:1747-57.

228. Stone GW, Bertrand ME, Moses JW, et al. Routine upstream initiation vs deferred selective use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: the ACUITY timing trial. JAMA. 2007;297:591-602.

229. Giugliano RP, White JA, Bode C, et al. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2176-90.

230. Oler A, Whooley MA, Oler J, Grady D. Adding heparin to aspirin reduces the incidence of myocardial infarction and death in patients with unstable angina. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1996;276:811-5.

231. Petersen JL, Mahaffey KW, Hasselblad V, et al. Efficacy and bleeding complications among patients randomized to enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin for antithrombin therapy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: a systematic overview. JAMA. 2004;292:89-96.

232. Stone GW, McLaurin BT, Cox DA, et al.; ACUITY Investigators. Bivalirudin for patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2203-16.

233. Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, Schulz S, et al.; ISAR-REACT 4 Trial Investigators. Abciximab and heparin versus bivalirudin for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1980-9.

234. Cavender MA, Sabatine MS. Bivalirudin versus heparin in patients planned for 3902 percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2014;384:599-606.

235. Valgimigli M, Frigoli E, Leonardi S, et al.; MATRIX Investigators. Bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:997-1009.

236. Moukarbel GV, Bhatt DL. Antiplatelet therapy and proton pump inhibition: clinician update. Circulation. 2012;125:375-80.

237. Gargiulo G, Costa F, Ariotti S, et al. Impact of proton pump inhibitors on clinical outcomes in patients treated with a 6- or 24-month dual-antiplatelet therapy duration: Insights from the PROlonging Dual-antiplatelet treatment after Grading stent-induced Intimal hyperplasia studY trial. Am Heart J. 2016;174:95-102.

238. Fortuna LA, Pawloski PA, Parker ED, et al. Proton pump inhibitor use by aspirin-treated coronary artery disease patients is not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2016;2:13-9.

239. Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Investigators N-SS. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1283-97.

240. Malmberg K, Ryden L, Efendic S, et al. Randomized trial of insulin-glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI study): effects on mortality at 1 year. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:57-65.

241. Malmberg K. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Study Group. BMJ. 1997;314:1512-5.

242. Malmberg K, Ryden L, Wedel H, et al., for the DIGAMI 2 Investigators. Intense metabolic control by means of insulin in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI 2): effects on mortality and morbidity. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:650-6.

243. Mamas MA, Neyses L, Fath-Ordoubadi F. A meta-analysis of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy for treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2010;15:e20-e24.

244. Gislason GH, Jacobsen S, Rasmussen JN, et al. Risk of death or reinfarction associated with the use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2006;113:2906-13.

245. Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, et al. Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2006;332:1302-8.

246. Roth A, Elkayam I, Shapira I, et al. Effectiveness of prehospital synchronous direct-current cardioversion for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias causing unstable hemodynamic states. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91:489-91.

247. Zafari AM, Zarter SK, Heggen V, et al. A program encouraging early defibrillation results in improved in-hospital resuscitation efficacy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:846-52.

248. Soar J, Nolan JP, Bottiger BW, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2015;95:100-47.

249. Piccini JP, Hranitzky PM, Kilaru R, et al. Relation of mortality to failure to prescribe beta-blockers acutely in patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation following acute myocardial infarction (from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion trial [VALIANT] Registry). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:1427-32.

250. Solomon RJ. Ventricular arrhythmias in patients with myocardial infarction and ischaemia. Relationship to serum potassium and magnesium. Drugs. 1984;28(Suppl 1):66-76.

251. Kolte D, Khera S, Dabhadkar KC, et al. Trends in coronary angiography, revascularization, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock complicating non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:1-9.

252. Mehta SR, Granger CB, Boden WE, et al.; TIMACS Investigators. Early versus delayed invasive intervention in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2165-75.

253. Navarese EP, Gurbel PA, Andreotti F, et al. Optimal timing of coronary invasive strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:261-70.

254. Milasinovic D, Milosevic A, Marinkovic J, et al. Timing of invasive strategy in NSTE-ACS patients and effect on clinical outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241:48-54.

255. Bonello L, Laine M, Puymirat E, et al. Timing of Coronary Invasive Strategy in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes and Clinical Outcomes: An Updated MetaAnalysis. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2016;9:2267-76.

256. Jobs A, Mehta SR, Montalescot G, et al. Optimal timing of an invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2017;390:737-46.

257. Kofoed KF, Kelbaek H, Hansen PR, et al. Early Versus Standard Care Invasive Examination and Treatment of Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome. Circulation. 2018;138:2741-50.

258. Bavry AA, Kumbhani DJ, Rassi AN, et al. Benefit of early invasive therapy in acute coronary syndromes: A meta-analysis of contemporary randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1319-25.

259. Fox KA, Clayton TC, Damman P, et al., FIR Collaboration. Long-term outcome of a routine versus selective invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome a meta-analysis of individual patient data. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:2435-45.

260. Nyman I, Wallentin L, Areskog M, et al. Risk stratification by early exercise testing after an episode of unstable coronary artery disease. The RISC study group. Int J Cardiol. 1993;39:131-42.

261. Siontis GC, Mavridis D, Greenwood JP, et al. Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2018;360:k504. doi:10.1136/bmj.k504.

262. Nordmann AJ, Hengstler P, Leimenstoll BM, et al. Clinical outcomes of stents versus balloon angioplasty in non-acute coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:69-80.

263. Moses JW, Mehran R, Nikolsky E, et al. Outcomes with the paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with acute coronary syndromes: analysis from the TAXUS-IV trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1165-71.

264. Kirtane AJ, Gupta A, Iyengar S, et al. Safety and efficacy of drug-eluting and bare metal stents: comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials and observational studies. Circulation. 2009;119:3198-206.

265. Kaiser C, Galatius S, Erne P, et al. Drug-eluting versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2310-9.

266. Greenhalgh J, Hockenhull J, Rao N, et al. Drug-eluting stents versus bare metal stents for angina or acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;5:CD004587.

267. Raber L, Kelbaek H, Ostojic M, et al. Effect of biolimus-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer vs bare-metal stents on cardiovascular events among patients with acute myocardial infarction: the COMFORTABLE AMI randomized trial. JAMA. 2012;308:777-87.

268. Bangalore S, Kumar S, Fusaro M, et al. Short- and long-term outcomes with drug-eluting and bare-metal coronary stents: a mixed-treatment comparison analysis of 117 762 patient-years of follow-up from randomized trials. Circulation. 2012;125:2873-91.

269. Bangalore S, Toklu B, Amoroso N, et al. Bare metal stents, durable polymer drug eluting stents, and biodegradable polymer drug eluting stents for coronary artery disease: mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013;347:f6625.

270. Valgimigli M, Tebaldi M, Borghesi M, et al. Two-year outcomes after first- or second-generation drug-eluting or bare-metal stent implantation in all-comer patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a pre-specified analysis from the PRODIGY study (prolonging dual antiplatelet treatment after grading stent-induced intimal hyperplasia study). JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2014;7:20-8.

271. Valgimigli M, Patialiakas A, Thury A, et al.; ZEUS Investigators. Zotarolimus-eluting versus bare-metal stents in uncertain drug-eluting stent candidates. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:805-15.

272. Urban P, Meredith IT, Abizaid A, et al.; LEADERS FREE Investigators. Polymer-free Drug-Coated Coronary Stents in Patients at High Bleeding Risk. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2038-47.

273. Garot P, Morice MC, Tresukosol D, et al.; LEADERS FREE Investigators. 2-Year Outcomes of High Bleeding Risk Patients After Polymer-Free Drug-Coated Stents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:162-71.

274. Valgimigli M, Gagnor A, Calabro P, et al. Radial versus femoral access in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing invasive management: a randomised multicentre trial. Lancet. 2015;385:2465-76.

275. Nardin M, Verdoia M, Barbieri L, et al. Radial vs Femoral Approach in Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017;16:79-92.

276. Ranasinghe I, Alprandi-Costa B, Chow V, et al. Risk stratification in the setting of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes 1999-2007. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:617-24.

277. Fukui T, Tabata M, Morita S, Takanashi S. Early and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with acute coronary syndrome versus stable angina pectoris. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145:1577-83.

278. Davierwala PM, Verevkin A, Leontyev S, et al. Does Timing of Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Affect Early and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients With Non-ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction? Circulation. 2015;132:731-40.

279. Malm CJ, Hansson EC, Akesson J, et al. Preoperative platelet function predicts perioperative bleeding complications in ticagrelor-treated cardiac surgery patients: A prospective observational study. Br J Anaesth. 2016;117:309-15.

280. Kwak YL, Kim JC, Choi YS, et al. Clopidogrel responsiveness regardless of the discontinuation date predicts increased blood loss and transfusion requirement after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1994-2002.

281. Ranucci M, Baryshnikova E, Soro G, et al.; Surgical and Clinical Outcome Research (SCORE) Group. Multiple electrode whole-blood aggregometry and bleeding in cardiac surgery patients receiving thienopyridines. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:123-9.

282. Mahla E, Suarez TA, Bliden KP, et al. Platelet function measurement based strategy to reduce bleeding and waiting time in clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the timing based on platelet function strategy to reduce clopidogrel-associated bleeding related to CABG (TARGET-CABG) study. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:261-9.

283. Ranucci M, Colella D, Baryshnikova E, Di Dedda U; Surgical and Clinical Outcome Research (SCORE) Group. Effect of preoperative P2Y12 and thrombin platelet receptor inhibition on bleeding after cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2014;113:970-6.

284. Vries MJ, Bouman HJ, Olie RH, et al. Determinants of agreement between proposed therapeutic windows of platelet function tests in vulnerable patients. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2017;3:11-7.

285. Solo K, Lavi S, Choudhury T, et al. Pre-operative use of aspirin in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic review and updated meta-analysis. J Thorac Dis. 2018;10:3444-59.

286. Hwang D, Lee JM, Rhee TM, et al. The effects of preoperative aspirin on coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic meta-analysis. Korean Circ J. 2019;49:498-510.

287. Lim E, Ali Z, Ali A, et al. Indirect comparison meta-analysis of aspirin therapy after coronary surgery. BMJ. 2003;327:1309.

288. Gavaghan TP, Gebski V, Baron DW. Immediate postoperative aspirin improves vein graft patency early and late after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. A placebo-controlled, randomized study. Circulation. 1991;83:1526-33.

289. Chakos A, Jbara D, Singh K, et al. Network meta-analysis of antiplatelet therapy following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): none versus one versus two antiplatelet agents. Ann Cardiothorac Surg. 2018;7:577-85.

290. Fox KAA, Mehta SR, Peters R, et al. Benefits and Risks of the Combination of Clopidogrel and Aspirin in Patients Undergoing Surgical Revascularization for Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome. The Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent ischemic Events (CURE) Trial. Circulation. 2004;110:1202-8.

291. Sørensen R, Abildstrøm SZ, Hansen PR, et al. Efficacy of Post-Operative Clopidogrel Treatment in Patients Revascularized With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting After Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1202-9.

292. Bomb R, Oliphant CS, Khouzam RN. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in the Setting of Acute Coronary Syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2015;116:148-54.

293. Roffi M, Topol EJ. Percutaneous coronary intervention in diabetic patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:190-8.

294. O'Donoghue ML, Vaidya A, Afsal R, et al. An invasive or conservative strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:106-11.

295. Farkouh ME, Domanski M, Sleeper LA, et al. Strategies for multivessel revascularization in patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2375-84.

296. Kapur A, Hall RJ, Malik IS, et al. Randomized comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with coronary artery bypass grafting in diabetic patients. 1-year results of the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Revascularization in DIAbetes) trial. JACC. 2010;55:432-40.

297. Verma S, Farkouh ME, Yanagawa B, et al. Comparison of coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013;1:317-28.

298. Stettler C, Allemann S, Wandel S, et al. Drug eluting and bare metal stents in people with and without diabetes: collaborative network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;337:a1331.

299. Bangalore S, Kumar S, Fusaro M, et al. Outcomes with various drug eluting or bare metal stents in patients with diabetes mellitus: mixed treatment comparison analysis of 22,844 patient years of follow-up from randomised trials. BMJ. 2012;345:e5170.

300. Daemen J, Garcia-Garcia HM, Kukreja N, et al. The long-term value of sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents over bare metal stents in patients with diabetes mellitus. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:26-32.

301. Szummer K, Lundman P, Jacobson SH, et al. Influence of renal function on the effects of early revascularization in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: data from the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART). Circulation. 2009;120:851-8.

302. Chang TI, Shilane D, Kazi DS, et al. Multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention in ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:2042-9.

303. Zheng H, Xue S, Lian F, et al. Meta-analysis of clinical studies comparing coronary artery bypass grafting with percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with end-stage renal disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;43:459-67.

304. Tsai TT, Messenger JC, Brennan JM, et al. Safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents in older patients with chronic kidney disease: a report from the linked CathPCI Registry-CMS claims database. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:1859-69.

305. Shenoy C, Boura J, Orshaw P, Harjai KJ. Drug-eluting stents in patients with chronic kidney disease: a prospective registry study. PLoS One. 2010;5:e15070.

306. Aspelin P, Aubry P, Fransson SG, et al. Nephrotoxic effects in high-risk patients undergoing angiography. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:491-9.

307. Merten GJ, Burgess WP, Gray LV, et al. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291:2328-34.

308. Jo SH, Youn TJ, Koo BK, et al. Renal toxicity evaluation and comparison between Visipaque (iodixanol) and Hexabrix (ioxaglate) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography: the RECOVER study: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:924-30.

309. Solomon RJ, Natarajan MK, Doucet S, et al. Cardiac Angiography in Renally Impaired Patients (CARE) study: a randomized double-blind trial of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Circulation. 2007;115:3189-96.

310. Brar SS, Shen AY, Jorgensen MB, et al. Sodium bicarbonate vs sodium chloride for the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;300:1038-46.

311. Maioli M, Toso A, Leoncini M, et al. Effects of hydration in contrast-induced acute kidney injury after primary angioplasty: a randomized, controlled trial. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4:456-62.

312. Nijssen EC, Rennenberg RJ, Nelemans PJ, et al. Prophylactic hydration to protect renal function from intravascular iodinated contrast material in patients at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (AMACING): a prospective, randomised, phase 3, controlled, openlabel, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2017;389:1312-22.

313. Giacoppo D, Gargiulo G, Buccheri S, et al. Preventive Strategies for Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Procedures: Evidence From a Hierarchical Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of 124 Trials and 28 240 Patients. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2017:10(5):e004383. doi:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004383.

314. Weisbord SD, Gallagher M, Jneid H, et al. Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:603-14.

315. Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG, et al. Early revascularization in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. SHOCK Investigators. Should We Emergently Revascularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:625-34.

316. Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG, et al.; SHOCK Investigators. Early revascularization and long-term survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2006;295:2511-5.

317. Thiele H, Akin I, Sandri M, et al.; CULPRIT-SHOCK Investigators. PCI strategies in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2419-32.

318. Thiele H, Akin I, Sandri M, et al., Investigators C-S. One-Year Outcomes after PCI trategies in Cardiogenic Shock. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:1699-710.

319. Gqsior P, Desperak P, Gierlaszynska K, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej. 2013;9:136-45.

320. Smilowitz NR, Alviar CL, Katz SD, Hochman JS. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock. Am Heart J. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2020.01.020.

321. Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann FJ, et al., Investigators I-SIT. Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1287-96.

322. Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann FJ, et al., Intraaortic Balloon Pump in cardiogenic shock IIti. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (IABP-SHOCK II): final 12 month results of a randomised, open-label trial. Lancet. 2013;382:1638-45.

323. Unverzagt S, Buerke M, de Waha A, et al. Intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation (IABP) for myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;3:CD007398.

324. Thiele H, Zeymer U, Thelemann N, et al., IABPSHOCK II Trial (Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock II) Investigators. Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction: Long-Term 6-Year Outcome of the Randomized IABP-SHOCK II Trial. Circulation. 2018. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038201.

325. Hajjar LA, Teboul J. Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices for Cardiogenic Shock: State of the Art. Crit Care. 2019;23:76. doi:10.1186/s13054-019-2368-y.

326. Elbadawi A, Elgendy IY, Mahmoud K, et al. Temporal Trends and Outcomes of Mechanical Complications in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2019;12:1825-36.

327. Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review. JAMA. 2003;290:86-97.

328. Taylor RS, Brown A, Ebrahim S, et al. Exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2004;116:682-92.

329. Clark AM, Hartling L, Vandermeer B, McAlister FA. Meta-analysis: secondary prevention programs for patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:659-72.

330. Iestra JA, Kromhout D, van der Schouw YT, et al. Effect size estimates of lifestyle and dietary changes on all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease patients: a systematic review. Circulation. 2005;112:924-34.

331. Taylor RS, Una lB, Critchley JA, Capewel lS. Mortality reductions in patients receiving exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation: how much can be attributed to cardiovascular risk factor improvements? Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006;13:369-74.

332. Chow CK, Jolly S, Rao-Melacini P, et al. Association of diet, exercise, and smoking modification with risk of early cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2010;121:750-8.

333. Aldcroft SA, Taylor NF, Blackstock FC, O'Halloran PD. Psychoeducational rehabilitation for health behavior change in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of controlled trials. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2011;31:273-81.

334. Heran BS, Chen JM, Ebrahim S, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;1:CD001800.

335. Janssen V, De Gucht V, Dusseldorp E, Maes S. Lifestyle modification programmes for patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013;20:620-40.

336. Booth JN 3rd, Levitan EB, Brown TM, et al. Effect of sustaining lifestyle modifications (nonsmoking, weight reduction, physical activity, and mediterranean diet) after healing of myocardial infarction, percutaneous intervention, or coronary bypass (from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study). Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:933-40.

337. Anderson L, Oldridge N, Thompson DR, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:1-12.

338. Rauch B, Davos CH, Doherty P, et al., Cardiac Rehabilitation Section EAoPCicwtIoMB, Informatics DoMBUoH, the Cochrane M, Endocrine Disorders Group IoGPH-HUDG. The prognostic effect of cardiac rehabilitation in the era of acute revascularisation and statin therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies — The Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcome Study (CROS). Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23:1914-39.

339. Cheng W, Zhang Z, Cheng W, et al. Associations of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 44 prospective cohort studies. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018;25:1864-72.

340. Lahtinen M, Toukola T, Junttila MJ, et al. Effect of Changes in Physical Activity on Risk for Cardiac Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. Am J Cardiol. 2018;12:143-8.

341. Pogosova N, Saner H, Pedersen SS, et al. Psychosocial Aspects in Cardiac Rehabilitation: From Theory to Practice. A Position Paper From the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of The European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation of the European Society of Cardiology. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2015;22:1290-306.

342. Lamotte M, Niset G, van de Borne P. The effect of different intensity modalities of resistance training on beat-to-beat blood pressure in cardiac patients. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005;12:12-7.

343. Wood DA, Kotseva K, Connolly S, et al., Group ES. Nurse-coordinated multidisciplinary, family-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme (EUROACTION) for patients with coronary heart disease and asymptomatic individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a paired, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;371:1999-2012.

344. Giannuzzi P, Temporelli PL, Marchioli R, et al., Investigators G. Global secondary prevention strategies to limit event recurrence after myocardial infarction: results of the GOSPEL study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial from the Italian Cardiac Rehabilitation Network. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:2194-204.

345. Voogdt-Pruis HR, Beusmans GH, Gorgels AP, et al. Effectiveness of nurse-delivered cardiovascular risk management in primary care: a randomised trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60:40-6.

346. Hammill BG, Curtis LH, Schulman KA, Whellan DJ. Relationship between cardiac rehabilitation and long-term risks of death and myocardial infarction among elderly Medicare beneficiaries. Circulation. 2010;121:63-70.

347. Fidalgo ASF, Farinatti P, Borges JP, et al. Institutional Guidelines for Resistance Exercise Training in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review. Sports Med. 2019;49:463-75.

348. Piepoli MF, Corra U, Benzer W, et al. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:1967-76.

349. Lawler PR, Filion KB, Eisenberg MJ. Efficacy of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation postmyocardial infarction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am Heart J. 2011;162:571-84.

350. Bruning RS, Sturek M. Benefits of exercise training on coronary blood flow in coronary artery disease patients. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;57:443-53.

351. de Vries H, Kemps HM, van Engen-Verheul MM, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation and survival in a large representative community cohort of Dutch patients. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:1519-28.

352. Stewart RAH, Held C, Hadziosmanovic N, et al., Investigators S. Physical Activity and Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70:1689-700.

353. Piepoli MF, Corra U, Dendale P, et al. Challenges in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction: A call for action. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2016;23:1994-2006.

354. Mezzani A, Hamm LF, Jones AM, et al. Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: a joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2013;20:442-67.

355. Piepoli MF, Corra U, Adamopoulos S, et al. Secondary prevention in the clinical management of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Core components, standards and outcome measures for referral and delivery: A Policy Statement from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. Endorsed by the Committee for Practice Guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2014;21:664-81.

356. Thomson CC, Rigotti NA. Hospital- and clinic-based smoking cessation interventions for smokers with cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003;45:459-79.

357. Sargent RP, Shepard RM, Glantz SA. Reduced incidence of admissions for myocardial infarction associated with public smoking ban: before and after study. BMJ. 2004;328(7446):977-80. doi:10.1136/bmj.38055.715683.55.

358. Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;1:CD000031.

359. Rigotti NA, Clair C, Munafo MR, Stead LF. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD001837.

360. Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;4:CD006103.

361. Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD009329.

362. Mills EJ, Thorlund K, Eapen S, et al. Cardiovascular events associated with smoking cessation pharmacotherapies: a network meta-analysis. Circulation. 2014;129:28-41.

363. Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD008286.

364. Lindson N, Chepkin SC, Ye W, et al. Different doses, durations and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019;4:CD013308. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013308.

365. Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Norat T, et al. Modified Mediterranean diet and survival after myocardial infarction: the EPIC-Elderly STudy. Eur J Epidemiol. 2007;22:871-81.

366. Sofi F, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1189-96.

367. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J, et al., Investigators PS. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1279-90.

368. Wang X, Ouyang Y, Liu J, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2014;349:g4490.

369. Freeman AM, Morris PB, Barnard N, et al. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:1172-87.

370. Miller V, Mente A, Dehghan M, et al., Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study i. Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2017;390:2037-49.

371. Wood AM, Kaptoge S, Butterworth AS, et al., Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration E-CVDUKBASG. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies. Lancet. 2018;39:1513-23.

372. Collaborators GBDA. Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 19902016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2018;392:1015-35.

373. Pack QR, Rodriguez-Escudero JP, Thomas RJ, et al. The prognostic importance of weight loss in coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89:1368-77.

374. Jackson ChL, Joshy G, Lewington S, et al. Body-mass index and all-cause mortality: individual participant-data meta-analysis of 239 prospective studies in four continents. Lancet. 2016;388:776-86.

375. Khan SS, Ning H, Wilkins JT, et al. Association of Body Mass Index With Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Compression of Morbidity. JAMA Cardiol. 2018;3:280-7.

376. Thomopoulos C, Parati G, Zanchetti A. Effects of blood pressure lowering on outcome incidence in hypertension. 1. Overview, meta-analyses, and metaregression analyses of randomized trials. J Hypertens. 2014;32:2285-95.

377. SPRINT Research Group, Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2103-16.

378. Ettehad D, Emdin CA, Kiran A, et al. Blood pressure lowering for prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2016;387:957-67.

379. Skyler JS, Bergenstal R, Bonow RO, et al. Intensive Glycemic Control and the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events: Implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA Diabetes Trials. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:187-92.

380. American Diabetes Association. Glycemic Targets: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2019. Diabetes Care Jan. 2019;42(Supplement 1):S61-S70.

381. American Diabetes Association. Pharmacologic Approaches to Glycemic Treatment: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2019. Diabetes Care Jan. 2019;42(Supplement 1):S90-S102.

382. Baumeister H, Hutter N, Bengel J. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(9):CD008012.

383. Rutledge T, Redwine LS, Linke SE, Mills PJ. A meta-analysis of mental health treatments and cardiac rehabilitation for improving clinical outcomes and depression among patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:335-49.

384. Richards SH, Anderson L, Jenkinson CE, et al. Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018;25:247-59.

385. Thom S, Poulter N, Field J, et al., UMPIRE Collaborative Group. Effects of a fixed-dose combination strategy on adherence and risk factors in patients with or at high risk of CVD: the UMPIRE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310:918-29.

386. Castellano JM, Sanz G, Penalvo JL, et al. A polypill strategy to improve adherence: results from the FOCUS project. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:2071-82.

387. Gurfinkel E, Leon de la Fuente R, Mendiz O, Mautner B. Flu vaccination in acute coronary syndromes and planned percutaneous coronary interventions (FLUVACS) study. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:25-31.

388. Ciszewski A, Bilinska ZT, Brydak LB, et al. Influenza vaccination in secondary prevention from coronary ischaemic events in coronary artery disease: FLUCAD study. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(11):1350-8. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm581.

389. Clar C, Oseni Z, Flowers N, et al. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD005050.

390. Caldeira D, Costa J, Vaz-Carneiro A. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Influenza Vaccines for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 5: CD005050]. Acta Med Port. 2015;28:424-6.

391. MacIntyre CR, Mahimbo A, Moa AM, Barnes M. Influenza vaccine as a coronary intervention for prevention of myocardial infarction. Heart. 2016;102:1953-6.

392. Caldeira D, Ferreira JJ, Costa J. Influenza vaccination and prevention of cardiovascular disease mortality. Lancet. 2018;391:426-7.

393. Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ, et al., Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II Investigators. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:877-83.

394. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, et al. Amiodarone or animplantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:225-37.

395. Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 918n of November 15, 2012 “On Approval of the Procedure for providing medical care to patients with cardiovascular diseases” (as amended on February 22, 2019). (In Russ.)

396. Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 173n of March 29, 2019 “On approval of the procedure for conducting dispensary monitoring of adults”. (In Russ.)


Review

For citations:


Barbarash O.L., Duplyakov D.V., Zateischikov D.A., Panchenko E.P., Shakhnovich R.M., Yavelov I.S., Yakovlev A.N., Abugov S.A., Alekyan B.G., Arkhipov M.V., Vasilieva E.Yu., Galyavich A.S., Ganyukov V.I., Gilyarevskyi S.R., Golubev E.P., Golukhova E.Z., Gratsiansky N.A., Karpov Yu.A., Kosmacheva E.D., Lopatin Yu.M., Markov V.A., Nikulina N.N., Pevzner D.V., Pogosova N.V., Protopopov A.V., Skrypnik D.V., Tereshchenko S.N., Ustyugov S.A., Khripun A.V., Shalaev S.V., Shpektor V.A., Yakushin S.S. 2020 Clinical practice guidelines for Acute coronary syndrome without ST segment elevation. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2021;26(4):4449. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15829/1560-4071-2021-4449

Views: 3783


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1560-4071 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7620 (Online)