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Генетические факторы риска сосудистого старения: молекулярные механизмы, полиморфизм генов-кандидатов и генные сети

https://doi.org/10.15829/1560-4071-2019-10-78-85

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Аннотация

Возраст считается независимым и решающим фактором риска в развитии сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний. Старение клеток сосудов индуцирует сложные изменения структуры и функций сосудистой сети. В статье рассматривается ряд молекулярно-генетических механизмов, участвующих в патогенезе сосудистого старения: клеточная и митохондриальная дисфункция, дисфункция эндотелия, истощение пула прогениторных клеток, укорочение и повреждение теломер, хроническое воспаление, окислительный стресс, нарушение регуляции сосудистого тонуса. Появляются всё новые подтверждения перекрестной вовлечённости в процессы сосудистого старения генов-кандидатов, ассоциированных с продолжительностью жизни и сердечно-сосудистыми заболеваниями, например, таких как ACE, SIRT1, TERC, FOXO1, FOXO3, APOE, NOS3. Для 26 генов, участвующих в представленных молекулярных механизмах сосудистого старения, приведены сайты функциональных полиморфизмов. Понимание основных вызванных возрастом патофизиологических изменений в сосудистой стенке дает возможность выбора превентивной стратегии. В заключение обсуждаются современные подходы для лучшего прогнозирования генетического риска на примере визуализации сети генов сосудистого старения.

Об авторах

А. А. Слепухина
ФГБУН Институт химической биологии и фундаментальной медицины, СО РАН
Россия

Слепухина Анастасия Александровна — младший научный сотрудник лаборатории персонализированной медицины.

Новосибирск



Е. М. Зеленская
ФГБУН Институт химической биологии и фундаментальной медицины, СО РАН
Россия

Младший научный сотрудник лаборатории персонализированной медицины.

Новосибирск



Г. И. Лифшиц
ФГБУН Институт химической биологии и фундаментальной медицины, СО РАН; Новосибирский государственный университет

Доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заведующий лабораторией персонализированной медицины, профессор кафедры внутренних болезней Новосибирского государственного университета



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Для цитирования:


Слепухина А.А., Зеленская Е.М., Лифшиц Г.И. Генетические факторы риска сосудистого старения: молекулярные механизмы, полиморфизм генов-кандидатов и генные сети. Российский кардиологический журнал. 2019;(10):78-85. https://doi.org/10.15829/1560-4071-2019-10-78-85

For citation:


Slepukhina A.A., Zelenskaya E.M., Lifshits G.I. Genetic risk factors for vascular aging: molecular mechanisms, polymorphism of candidate genes and gene networks. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2019;(10):78-85. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15829/1560-4071-2019-10-78-85

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ISSN 1560-4071 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7620 (Online)